Download e-book for iPad: A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the by Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

ISBN-10: 029910740X

ISBN-13: 9780299107406

A definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views

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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades

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By compressing income scales, it becomes bit by bit an egalitarian State. Social assistance, whatever form it takes, acts on the assisted persons as a disincentive to work, while fiscal and social charges have the same kind of effects on taxpayers as a whole. The characteristic egalitarianism of the Welfare State, by restricting differences in consumption levels and encouraging mass as against elitist consumption, attacks one of the bases of economic and social dynamism. At all times there must be production and consumption, not only of the goods required by all, but also-in due proportion-of a range of other goods and services, sufficiently differentiated to reflect the respective social position of individuals and families-at least, if it is desired to set up or preserve a dynamic development process .

G. education and health) are highly professionalised, while others (welfare in the narrow sense) are fast becoming so, have high salary levelsand a high proportion of staff costs in total expenditure. Pay scales are related to university degrees and certificates and to seniority in the profession . The social, medical and cultural sectors, as well as education, employ members of highly organised professions: the medical practitioners, pharmacists, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, teachers, psychologists, speech therapists and welfare workers, for instance, as well as the highly skilled "outside" personnel such as the computer specialists now engaged in the daily management of hospitals and insurance funds, the chemists in analytical laboratories, the engineers and technicians responsible for the installation and logistic services of such institutions.

In sum, the following enter into the explanation of this growth of welfare expenditures and deficits : the high remuneration of the professional groups concerned; and the rise in costs (both of supplies and of capital), in the social sectors, whether these are in the hands of public or private institut ions. In recent years there has been a development of sophisticated apparatuses to assist management, for apprenticeship and teaching, and also to step up the struggle against disease. Similarly, in explaining economic growth, the importance of greater social expenditure and the development of a demand for educational and health services should not be underestimated.

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A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades by Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour


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